Peer-reviewed publications


92. Del Olmo-Ruiz‡, M. and A.E. Arnold. 2016. Community structure of fern-affiliated endophytes in three neo-tropical forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, accepted pending minor revisions.

91. Arendt‡, K.R., K.L. Hockett, S.J. Araldi-Brondolo, D.A. Baltrus, A.E. Arnold. 2016. Isolation of endohyphal bacteria from foliar fungi and in vitro establishment of their symbiotic associations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, in press.

90. U’Ren, J.M., J. Miadlikowska, N. Zimmerman, F. Lutzoni, J. Stajich, A.E. Arnold. 2016. Contributions of North American endophytes to the phylogeny, ecology, and taxonomy of the Xylariaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 98: 210-232.

89. Sousa, J., M. Aguilar-Perez, A.E. Arnold, N. Rios, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, and L. Cubilla-Rios. 2016. Chemical constituents and their antibacterial activity from the tropical endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. F2934. Journal of Applied Microbiology, in press.

88. Kithsiri Wijeratne, E.M., G.M.K.B. Gunaherath, V.M. Chapla, J. Tillotson, F. de la Cruz, M. Kang, J. U’Ren, A.R. Araujo, A.E. Arnold, E. Chapman, and AA.L. Gunatilaka. 2015. Oxaspirol B with p97 inhibitory activity and other oxaspirols from Lecythophora sp. FL1375 and FL1031, endolichenic fungal strains inhabiting Parmotrema tinctorum and Cladonia evansii. Journal of Natural Products, in press.

87. Xu, Y., B.P. Bashyal, M.X. Liu, P. Espinosa-Artiles, J.M. U’Ren, A.E. Arnold, and A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2015. Cytotoxic cytochalasins and other metabolites from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a fungal endophyte of Spanish moss. Natural Products Communications 10:1655-1658.

86. Xu, Y., J. Mafezoli, M.C.F. Oliveira, J.M. U’Ren, A.E. Arnold, and A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2015. Anteaglonialides A–F, Spironaphtho-1,8-dioxincyclohexa--butyrolactones and Palmarumycins CE1–CE3 from Anteaglonium sp. FL0768, a fungal endophyte of sand spikemoss, Selaginella arenicola. Journal of
Natural Products 78: 2738-2747.

85. Ohkura, M., J.J. Worley, J.E. Hughes-Hallett, J.S. Fisher, B.C. Love, A.E. Arnold, and M. J. Orbach. 2015. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola on a captive black racer (Coluber constrictor) nd a garter snake (Thamnophissirtalis) in Pennsylvania. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, in press.

84. Chagnon, P.-L., J.M. U’Ren, F. Lutzoni, J. Miadlikowska, and A.E. Arnold. Interaction type influences
ecological network structure more than local abiotic conditions: evidence from fungal symbionts at a continental scale. Oecologia 180: 181-191.

83. Huang‡, Y.-L., M.M.N. Devan, J.M. U’Ren, S.H. Furr, and A.E. Arnold. 2015. Pervasive effects of wildfire on foliar endophyte communities in montane forest trees. Microbial Ecology 71: 452-468.

82. Wei, H., Y. Xu, P., Espinosa-Artiles, M.X. Liu, J.-G. Luo, J.M. U’Ren, A.E. Arnold, and A.A.L. Gunatilaka. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents of Xylaria sp. NC1214, a fungal endophyte of the moss Hypnum sp. Phytochemistry 118: 102-108.

81. Wijeratne, E.M.K., Y. Xu, A.E. Arnold, A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2015. Pulvinulin A, graminin C, and cis-gregatin B--new natural furanones from Pulvinula sp. 11120, a fungal endophyte of Cupressus arizonica. Natural Product Communications 10: 107-111.

80. Martinson‡, E., J. Hackett, C. Machado, A.E. Arnold. 2015. Metatranscriptome analysis of fig flowers suggests mechanisms for mutualism stability and gall induction. PloS ONE 10: e0130745.

79. Zalamea, P.C., C. Sarmiento, A.E. Arnold, A. Davis, J. Dalling. 2015. Do microbes and abrasion by soil particles influence seed persistence and loss of physical dormancy in tropical seedbanks? Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 799 (doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00799).

78. Corrales‡, A.O., A.E. Arnold, A. Ferrer, B. Turner, J.W. Dalling. 2015. Variation in ectomycorrhizal communities associated with Oreomunnea mexicana (Juglandaceae) in tropical montane forests. Mycorrhiza 26: 1-17.

77. Massimo#, N., M.M.N. Devan#, K.R. Arendt‡, M. Wilch°, J.M. Riddle#, S.H. Furr°, C. Steen#, J.M. U’Ren, D.C. Sandberg‡, A.E. Arnold. 2015. Fungal endophytes of desert plants: infrequent in culture, but diverse and distinctive symbionts. Microbial Ecology DOI 10.1007/s00248-014-0563-6.

76. Chen‡, K.H., J. Miadlikowska, K. Molnar, A.E. Arnold, J.M. U’Ren, E. Gaya, C. Gueidan, F. Lutzoni. 2015. Phylogenetic analyses of eurotiomycetous endophytes reveal their close affinities to Chaetothyriales, Eurotiales, and a new order – Phaeomoniellales. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 85: 117-130.

75. Luo, J.O., X.B. Wang, Y.M. Zu, J.M. U’Ren, A.E. Arnold, L.Y. Kong, A.A.L. 2014. Gunatilaka. Delitschiapyrone A, a pyrone-naphthalenone adduct bearing an unprecedented pentacyclic ring system from the leaf-associated fungus Delitschia sp. FL1581. Organic Letters 16: 5944-5947.

74. U’Ren, J.M., J.M. Riddle#, J.T. Monacell‡, I. Carbone, J. Miadlikowska, A.E. Arnold. 2014. Tissue storage and primer selection influence pyrosequencing-based inferences of diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi. Molecular Ecology Resources 14:1032-1048.

73. Higginbotham, S.J., W.R. Wong, R.G. Linington, C. Spadafora, L. Iturrado, A.E. Arnold. 2014. Sloth fur as a novel source of fungi with potent anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial activity. PLoS One 9: e84549 (top-viewed paper, early 2014; > 71,600 views in January; extensive popular press).

72. Sandberg‡, D.C., L.J. Battista#, A.E. Arnold. 2014. Fungal endophytes of aquatic macrophytes: diverse host-generalists characterized by tissue preferences and geographic structure. Microbial Ecology 67: 735-747.

71. Del Olmo‡, M. and A.E. Arnold. 2014. Interannual variation and host affiliations of endophytic fungi associated with ferns at La Selva, Costa Rica. Mycologia 106: 8-21.

70. Higgins‡, K.L., A.E. Arnold, P. Coley, T. Kursar. 2014. Communities of fungal endophytes in tropical forest grasses: highly diverse host- and habitat generalists characterized by strong spatial structure. Fungal Ecology 8: 1-11.

69. Oono, R., F. Lutzoni, A.E. Arnold, L. Kaye#, J.M. U’Ren, G. May, I. Carbone. 2014. Genetic variation in horizontally transmitted symbionts of pine needles reveals population structure in cryptic species. American Journal of Botany 101: 1362-1374.

68. Almeida, C., H. Ortega, S. Higginbotham, C. Spadafora, A.E. Arnold, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, W.H. Gerwick, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2014. Chemical constituents from Microthyriaceae sp., an endophytic fungus from a tropical grass. Letters in Applied Microbiology 59: 58-64.

67. Miadlikowska, J.M., F. Kauff, F. Hognabba, J.C. Oliver, K. Molnar, E. Fraker, E. Gaya, J. Hafellner, V. Hofstetter, C. Gueidan, M. Kukwa, M. Lücking, C. Björk, H.J. M. Sipman, A.R. Burgaz, A. Thell, A. Passo, L. Myllys, T. Goward, S. Fernandez-Brime, G. Hestmark, J. Lendemer, H.T. Lumbsch, M. Schmull, C. Schoch, E. Serusiaux, D.R. MAddison, A.E. Arnold, F. Lutzoni, S. Stenroos. 2014. Multigene phylogenetic analysis for 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 312 genera, and 66 families of the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 79: 132-168 (Editor’s Choice)

66. Nilsson, R.H., K.D. Hyde, J. Pawlowska, M. Ryberg, L. Tedersoo, A.B. Aas, S.A. Alias, A. Alves, C.L. Anderson, A. Antonelli, A.E. Arnold, B. Bahnmann, M. Bahram, J. Bengtsson-Palme, A. Berlin, S. Branco, P. Chomnunti, A. Dissanayake, R. Drenkhan, H. Friberg, T.G. Frøslev, B. Halwachs, M. Hartmann, B. Henricot, R. Jayawardena, A. Jumpponen, H. Kauserud, S. Koskela, T. Kulik, K. Liimatainen, B. Lindahl, D. Lindner, J.K. Liu, S. Maharachchikumbura, D. Manamgoda, S. Martinsson, M.A. Neves, T. Niskanen, S. Nylinder, O.L. Pereira, D.B. Pinho, T.M. Porter, V. Queloz, T. Riit, M. Sanchez-García, F. de Sousa, E. Stefaczyk, M. Tadych, S. Takamatsu, Q. Tian, D. Udayanga, M. Unterseher, Z. Wang, S. Wikee, J. Yan, E. Larsson, K-H. Larsson, U. Kõljalg, K. Abarenkov. 2014. A distributed effort to improve the annotation of public ITS sequence data for plant pathogenic fungi. Fungal Diversity 67: 11-19.

65. Higginbotham, S.J., A.E. Arnold, A. Ibañez, C. Spadafora, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar. 2013. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of their taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of host plants. PLoS One 8: e73192.

64. Lau‡, M., N.C. Johnson, A.E. Arnold. 2013. Factors influencing communities of foliar fungal endophytes in riparian woody plants. Fungal Ecology 6: 365-378.

63. Hoffman‡, M.T., M. Gunatilaka, E.M.K. Wijeratne, A.A.L. Gunatilaka, A.E. Arnold. 2013. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte. PLoS One 8: e73132.

62. Tedersoo, L., A.E. Arnold, K. Hansen. 2013. Novel aspects in the life cycle and biotrophic interactions in the Pezizomycetes. Molecular Ecology 22: 1488-1493.

61. Martinson‡, E.O., K.C. Jander, Y.Q. Peng, H.H. Chen, C.A. Machado, A.E. Arnold, E.A. Herre. 2013. Relative investment in egg loads and poison sacs in fig wasps: implications for physio-logical mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs. Acta Oecologica 57: 58-66.

60. Ortega, H.E., P.R. Graupner, Y. Asai, K. TenDyke, D. Qui, Y.Y. Shen, N. Rios, A.E. Arnold, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, W.H. Gerwick, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2013. Mycoleptodiscin A and B, cytotoxic alkaloids from the endophytic fungus Mycoleptodiscus. Journal of Natural Products 76: 741-744.

59. Wanigesekara, A., E.M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, A.E. Arnold, A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2013. 10’-Deoxy-10’ alpha-hydroxyascochlorin, a new cell migration inhibitor and other metabolites from Acre-monium, an endophyte in Ephedra trifurca. Natural Products Communications 8: 601-604.

58. Xu, Y.M., P. Espinosa-Artiles, M.P. Liu, A.E. Arnold, A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2013. Secoemestrin D, a cytotoxic epitetrathiodioxopiperizine, and emericellenes A-E, five sesterterpenoids from Emericella sp. AST0036, a fungal endophyte of Astragalus lentiginosus. Journal of Natural Products 12: 2330-2336.

57. Bascom-Slack, C., A.E. Arnold, S.A. Strobel. 2012. Student-directed discovery of the plant microbiome and its products. Science 338: 485-486.

56. Martinson‡, E.O., E.A. Herre, C.A. Machado, A.E. Arnold. 2012. Culture-free survey reveals diverse fungal communities associated with figs (Ficus) in Panama. Microbial Ecology 64: 1073-1084.

55. U’Ren‡, J., F. Lutzoni, J. Miadlikowska, A. Laetsch, A.E. Arnold. 2012. Host and geographic structure of endophytic and endolichenic fungi at a continental scale. American Journal of Botany 99: 898-914.

54. Gazis‡, R., J. Miadlikowska, F. Lutzoni, A.E. Arnold, P. Chaverri. 2012. Culture-based study of endophytes associated with rubber trees in Peru reveals a new class of Pezizomycotina: Xylonomycetes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 294-304.

53. Milani‡, N.A., D.P. Lawrence, A.E. Arnold, H.D. vanEtten. 2012. Origin of pistatin demethylase (PDA) in the genus Fusarium. Fungal Genetics and Biology 49: 933-942.

52. Varughese, T., N. Riosa, S. Higginbotham, A.E. Arnold, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, W.H. Gerwick, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2012. Antifungal depsidone metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an endo-phyte antagonistic to the phytopathogen Giberella fujikoroi. Tetrahedron Letters 28: 1624-1626.

51. Molinar, E., N. Rios, C. Spadafora, A.E. Arnold, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, W.H. Gerwick, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2012. Coibanoles, a new class of meroterpenoids produced by Pycnoporus sanguineus. Tetrahedron Letters 53: 919-922.

50. Martinez-Luis, S., L. Cherigo, A.E. Arnold, C. Spadafora, W.H. Gerwick, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2012. Antiparasitic and anticancer constituents of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. Strain F1544. Natural Products Communications 7: 165-168.

49. Wijeratne, E.M.K., B.P. Bashyal, M.X. Liu, D.D. Rocha, G.M. Gunaherath, J.M. U’Ren‡, M.K. Guna-tilaka, A.E. Arnold, L. Whitesell, and A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2012. Geopyxins A-E, ent-kaurane diterpenoids from endolichenic fungi, Geopyxis aff. majalis and Geopyxis sp. AZ-0066: structure-activity relationships of
geopyxins and their analogues. Journal of Natural Products 75: 361-369.

48. Lawrence‡, D.P., B.M. Pryor, S.B. Kroken, A.E. Arnold. 2011. Interkingdom horizontal gene transfer of a hybrid NRPS/PKS from bacteria to filamentous Ascomycota. PLoS ONE 6: e28231.

47. Dalling, J.W., A.S. Davis, B.J. Schutte‡, A.E. Arnold. 2011. Seed survival in soil: integrating effects of predation, dormancy, and the soil microbial community. Journal of Ecology 99: 89-95.

46. Higgins‡ K.L., P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, A.E. Arnold. 2011. Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host-generalism among fungal endophytes of tropical grasses. Mycologia 103: 247-260.

45. Wang, X.N., B.P. Bashyal, E.M. Wijeratne, J. U’Ren‡, M. Gunatilaka, A.E. Arnold, A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2011. Smardaesidins A-G, new isopimarane and 20-Nor-isopimarane diterpenoids isolated from Smardaea sp., endophyte of Ceratodon purpureus. Journal of Natural Products 74: 2052-2061.

44. Moreno, E., T. Varughese, C. Spadafora, A.E. Arnold, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar, W.H. Gerwick, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2011. Chemical constituents of the new endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and their antiparasitic activity. Natural Products Communications 6: 835-840

43. Martinez-Luis, S., L. Cherigo, S. Higginbotham, A.E. Arnold, C. Spadafora, A. Ibañez, W.H. Gerwick, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2011. Screening and evaluation of antiparasitic and in vitro anticancer activities of Panamanian endophytic fungi. International Microbiology 14: 95-102.

42. Vega, F.E., A. Simpkins, M.C. Aime, F. Posada, S.W. Peterson, S.A. Rehner, F. Infante, A. Castillo, A.E. Arnold. 2010. Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawai’i, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Fungal Ecology 3: 122-138.

41. U’Ren‡, J.M., F. Lutzoni, J. Miadlikowska, A.E. Arnold. 2010. Community analysis reveals close affinities between endophytic and endolichenic fungi in mosses and lichens. Microbial Ecology 60: 340-353.

40. Epps‡, M.J. and A.E. Arnold. 2010. Diversity, abundance, and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities in the Appalachian Mountains. Mycologia 102: 785-802.

39. Hoffman‡, M.T. and A.E. Arnold. 2010. Diverse bacteria inhabit living hyphae of phylogenetically diverse foliar endophytes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 4063-4075.

38. Arnold, A.E., L.J. Lamit‡, M. Bidartondo, C. Gehring, H.S. Callahan. 2010. Interwoven branches of the plant and fungal trees of life. New Phytologist 185: 874-878.

37. Peay, K., M. Bidartondo, A.E. Arnold. 2010. Not every fungus is everywhere: scaling the biogeography of fungal-plant interactions across roots, shoots, and ecosystems. New Phytologist 185: 878-882.

36. Parrent‡, J.L., K. Peay, A.E. Arnold, L.H. Comas, P. Avis, A. Tuininga. 2010. Moving from pattern to process in fungal symbioses: linking functional traits, community ecology, and phylogenetics. New Phytologist 185: 882-886.

35. Arnold, A.E., J. Miadlikowska, K.L. Higgins#, S.D. Sarvate#, P. Gugger#, A. Way#, V. Hofstetter, F. Kauff, F. Lutzoni. 2009. A phylogenetic estimation of trophic transition networks for ascomycetous fungi: are lichens cradles of symbiotrophic fungal diversification? Systematic Biology 58: 283-297 (cover article).

34. U’Ren‡, J.M., J.W. Dalling, R Gallery‡, D.R. Maddison, E.C. Davis, C.M. Gibson‡, A.E. Arnold. 2009. Diversity and evolutionary origins of fungi associated with seeds of a neotropical pioneer tree: a case study for analyzing fungal environmental samples. Mycological Research 113: 432-449.

33. Maddison, D.R. and A.E. Arnold. 2009. A review of the Bembidion (Odontium) aenulum subgroup (Coleoptera: Carabidae), with description of a new species. Zootaxa 2214: 45-61.

32. Rodriguez, R.J., J. White, A.E. Arnold, R. Redman. 2009. Fungal endophytes: diversity and ecological roles. New Phytologist 182: 314-330.

31. Arnold, A.E. 2008. Endophytic fungi: hidden components of tropical community ecology. In: Tropical Forest Community Ecology. S. Schnitzer & W. Carson, eds. Blackwell Sci., pp. 254-271.

30. Feldman‡, T.S., H.E. O’Brien‡, A.E. Arnold. 2008. Moths that vector a plant pathogen also transport endophytic fungi and mycoparasitic antagonists. Microbial Ecology 56: 742-750.

29. Hoffman‡, M. and A.E. Arnold. 2008. Geography and host identity interact to shape communities of endophytic fungi in cupressaceous trees. Mycological Research 112: 331-344.

28. Kluger#, C., J.W. Dalling, R.E. Gallery‡, E. Sanchez, C. Weeks-Galindo#, A.E. Arnold. 2008. Prevalent host-generalism among fungi associated with seeds of four neotropical pioneer species. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24: 351-354.

27. Bruns, T., A.E. Arnold, K. Hughes. 2008. Fungal networks made of humans: UNITE, FESIN, and frontiers in fungal ecology. New Phytologist 177: 586-588.

26. Horton, T.R., A.E. Arnold, T.D. Bruns. 2008. FESIN workshops at ESA: the mycelial network grows. Mycorrhiza 19: 283-285.

25. Jiménez-Romero, C., E. Ortega-Barria, A.E. Arnold, L. Cubilla-Rios. 2008. Activity against Plasmodium falciparum of lactones isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. Pharmaceutical Biology 46: 700-703.

24. Kithsiri Wijeratne, E.M., P.A. Paranagama, M.T. Marron, M.K. Gunatilaka, A.E. Arnold, A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2008. Sesquiterpene quinines and related metabolites from Phyllosticta spinarum, a fungus endophytic in Platycladus orientalis in the Sonoran Desert. Journal of Natural Products 71: 218-222.

23. Mejía‡, L.C., E.I. Rojas, Z. Maynard, S. Van Bael, A.E. Arnold, P. Hebbar, G.J. Samuels, N. Robbins, E.A. Herre. 2008. Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens. Biological Control 46: 4-14.

22. Rojas E.I., E.A. Herre, L.C. Mejia‡, A.E. Arnold, P. Chaverri, G.J. Samuels. 2008. Endomel-anconiopsis, a new anamorph genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae. Mycologia 100: 760-775.

21. Arnold, A.E. 2007. Understanding the diversity of foliar fungal endophytes: progress, challenges, and frontiers. Fungal Biology Reviews 21: 56-61.

20. Arnold, A.E. and F. Lutzoni. 2007. Diversity and host range of foliar fungal endophytes: Are tropical leaves biodiversity hotspots? Ecology 88: 541-549.

19. Arnold, A.E., D.A. Henk‡, R.L. Eells#, F. Lutzoni, R. Vilgalys. 2007. Diversity and phylogenetic affinities of foliar fungal endophytes in loblolly pine inferred by culturing and environmental PCR. Mycologia 99: 185-206.

18. Arnold*, A.E. and B.M.J. Engelbrecht. 2007. Fungal endophytes nearly double minimum leaf conductance in seedlings of a tropical tree. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23: 369-372.

17. Gallery, R. ‡, J.W. Dalling, A.E. Arnold. 2007.Diversity, host affinity, and distribution of seed-infecting fungi: A case study with neotropical Cecropia. Ecology 88: 582-588.

16. Gallery, R.E. ‡, J.W. Dalling, B. Wolfe#, A.E. Arnold. 2007. Role of seed-infecting fungi in the recruitment limitation of neotropical pioneer species. In Seed dispersal: Theory and its application in a changing world. A. Dennis, R. Green, E. Schupp and D. Westcott, eds. CABI Press. pp. 479-498.

15. Tsai, Y.J. #, K. Maloney#, A.E. Arnold. 2007.Abiotic and biotic factors influencing distribution of Pyrgulopsis thompsoni, the Huachuca springsnail. Journal of Aquatic Ecology 22: 213-218.

14. Agrawal, A.A., D.A. Ackerly, F. Adler, A.E. Arnold, C. Cáceres, D.F. Doak, E. Post, P. Hudson, J. Maron, K.A. Mooney‡, M. Power, D. Schemske, J.J. Stachowicz, S.Y. Strauss, M.G. Turner, E. Werner. 2007. Filling key gaps in population and community ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 145-152.

13. Agrawal, A.A., D.A. Ackerly, F. Adler, A.E. Arnold, C. Cáceres, D.F. Doak, E. Post, P. Hudson, J. Maron, K.A. Mooney‡, M. Power, D. Schemske, J.J. Stachowicz, S.Y. Strauss, M.G. Turner, E. Werner. 2007. In support of observational studies (reply). Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 294:295.

12. Higgins, K. L. #, A.E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, S.D. Sarvate#, F. Lutzoni. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships, host affinity, and geographic structure of boreal and arctic endophytes from three major plant lineages. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 543-555.

11. Paranagama, P.A., E.M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, M.K. Gunatilaka, A.E. Arnold, A.A.L. Gunatilaka. 2007. Heptaketides from Corynespora sp. inhabiting the cavern beard lichen, Usnea cavernosa: first report of metabolites of an endolichenic fungus. Journal of Natural Products 70: 1700-1705.

10. James, T.Y., F. Kauff, C. Schoch, P.B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan‡, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H.T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb‡, A.E. Arnold, A. Amtoft‡, J.E. Stajich‡, K. Hosaka‡, G.-H. Sung‡, D. Johnson, B. O’Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J.M. Curtis, J.C. Slot, Z. Wang, A.W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J.E. Longcore, K. O’Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P.M. Letcher, M.J. Powell, J.W. Taylor, M.M. White, G.W. Griffith, D.R. Davies, R.A. Humber, J.B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A.Y. Rossman, J.D. Rogers, D.H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R.A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R.A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P.W. Crous, K.W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W.A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D.M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr‡, D. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. McLaughlin, J. Spatafora, R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of the fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

9. Miadlikowska, J., F. Kauff, V. Hofstetter, E. Fraker, M. Grube, V. Reeb‡, G. Hestmark, B. Hodgkinson‡, M. Kukwa, M.G. Otalora‡, A. Rauhut, C. Scheidegger, E. Timdal, S. Stenroos, I. Brodo, D. Ertz‡, P. Diederich, R. Lücking, J.C. Lendemer‡, E. Tripp‡, R. Yahr‡, P. May, G. Perlmutter, D.M. Hillis, W.R. Buck, C. Gueidan‡, A.E. Arnold, C. Robertson, J. Hafellner, F. Lutzoni. 2006. New insights from nuclear ribosomal and protein coding genes into classification and evolution of the Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota). Mycologia 98: 1088-1103.

8. Spatafora, J.W., C. Schoch, D. Johnson, G-H. Sung‡, K. Hosaka‡, B. O’Rourke, M. Serdani, R. Spotts, F. Lutzoni, V. Hofstetter, E. Fraker, C. Gueidan‡, J. Miadlikowska, V. Reeb‡, M. Saunders#, R. Yahr‡, A.E. Arnold, T. Lumbsch, R. Lücking. 2006. A five-gene phylogenetic analysis of the Pezizomycotina. Mycologia 98: 1018-1028.

7. Arnold*, A.E., L. Mejía, D. Kyllo, E. Rojas, Z. Maynard, N. Robbins, E.A. Herre. 2003. Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100: 15649-15654.

6. Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio‡, B. Dentinger‡, M. Padamsee‡, D. Hibbett, T.Y. James‡, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb‡, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A.E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung‡, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O’Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz‡, C. Gueidan‡, K. Hansen, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny‡, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr‡, R Vilgalys. 2003. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and the evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91: 1446-1480.

5. Arnold*, A.E. and E.A. Herre. 2003. Canopy cover and leaf age affect colonization by tropical fungal endophytes: Ecological pattern and process in Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae). Mycologia 95: 388-398.

4. Arnold*, A.E. and N.M. Asquith. 2002. Herbivory in a fragmented tropical forest: patterns from islands at Lago Gatún, Panamá. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 1663-1680.

3. Arnold*, A.E., Z. Maynard, G. Gilbert. 2001. Fungal endophytes in dicotyledonous neotropical trees: patterns of abundance and diversity. Mycological Research 105: 1502-1507.

2. Arnold*, A.E., Z. Maynard, G. Gilbert, P.D. Coley, T.A. Kursar. 2000. Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Ecology Letters 3: 267-274.

1. Asquith*, N.M., J. Terborgh, A.E. Arnold, M. Riveros-C. 1999. The fruits the agouti ate: Hymenaea courbaril seed fate when its disperser is absent: evidence from Lago Guri, Venezuela. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15: 229-235.